Tuesday, 24 April 2012 17:06

Hockey Stick Materials - Materials - part 3

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Now assuming your part is well engineered and is well manufactured there is one final thing that must be considered -- what material should I use as my fibres : glass, aramid (Kevlar) or carbon?

Glass has been used for years in various applications including boats, cars and certain parts of airplanes. Glass is one of the cheapest fibre materials while having decent properties. The stiffness of glass fibres is similar to that of aluminium at 68 GPa (vs 69 GPa for aluminium). It has a higher hardness than aluminium (6 vs 2.75 on Moh's scale) and a lower density at 2400 kg/m3 (vs 2700 kg/m3). Glass also has a decent toughness for a composite although metals such as aluminium are much tougher. When weaved glass is white in appearance.

Glass seems to be a good choice on first observation but due to the nature of composites, the composite material does not retain 100% of the properties of the fibre material (as the volume fraction is not 100%). It heavy, not very stiff but has good hardness and a decent toughness. 

Closeup of protective fibreglass on hockey stick

                    Image of Glass-fibre protected stick.

Aramid (Kevlar) is best known for its use in bullet-proof vests but is also used in firefighter's uniforms for its good heat resistance and flexibility. It has a relatively high Young's modulus (70-110 GPa) but it is very weak if compressed. Kevlar also has the lowest density of the materials considered at 1440 kg/m3. Aramid also has high toughness (which is why it is used for ballistics protection) but it absorbs moisture which can lead to degradation. It also has some issues with bonding to the polymer which can reduce its performance. When weaved Aramid is golden/yellow in appearance.

Carbon is the fibre most often associated with composites. It has the highest stiffness of the materials (depending on the grade it can reach 450GPa). Carbon has relatively low density of 1750 kg/m3 but has the lowest toughness of the materials. It is black in appearance.

Closeup of carbon fibre weave on hockey stick

                                      Close-up of carbon fibre hockey stick

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Read 15253 times Last modified on Sunday, 19 August 2012 17:42
Jean-Michel Roy

15+ Years experience as a goaltender

20+ Years experience playing hockey

Currently a goalie coach for Phil Martin's Goalie Academy.

E-mail: jm@thehockeyresource.ca

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Website: www.thehockeyresource.ca
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